Esophageal cancer treatment
Oesophagal cancer is a relatively common malignant tumour from cells of the oesophagus. The initial symptom is swallowing issues with rough food. For diagnosis, doctors perform an endoscopic examination with a biopsy. The primary treatment is endoscopic or open surgery, radiation, targeted and chemotherapy.
Esophageal cancer is an oncological disease in which the tumour grows from the walls of the esophagus. It is more common in older patients, though the reasons for developing the pathology have not been precisely established. The following factors can increase the risk of a malignant tumour in the esophagus:
- Smoking and alcohol consumption;
- Consumption of excessively hot or cold food and drinks;
- Inhalation of toxic gases;
- Chemical burns.
Oncology risks increase with obesity, gastroesophageal reflux disease, keratoderma, and Barrett's disease.
The morphological classification distinguishes several types:
- Squamous cell cancer - develops from cells of a flat epithelium;
- Adenocarcinoma - develops from glandular cells.
In addition, cancer is divided into several categories depending on its growth characteristics. For example, endophytic cancer of the esophagus develops in the thickness of the walls, and exophytic cancer grows in the lumen. Sometimes there are mixed types.
Difficulty swallowing food is the first symptom of esophageal cancer. A person feels food is stuck and tries to push it through with water. Gradually, the sign worsens, and the patient is forced to refuse solid food. Due to eating disorders, weight decreases. In addition, nausea and vomiting, bad breath, blood impurities in vomitus and hoarseness of voice might occur.
Complex diagnostics are performed to detect the tumour: ultrasound, esophagoscopy, and contrasted X-rays. In addition, histological examination (biopsy) is crucial to verify the diagnosis.
Combined treatment of esophageal cancer is considered the most effective. Surgery and radiosurgery (CyberKnife) are performed in the early stages. Often, the tumour is removed along with part of the esophagus and lymph nodes. The high effectiveness of chemotherapy ( systemic and local) and targeted drugs is since it helps prevent a recurrence. Radiation therapy (including local brachytherapy) is given after and before surgery when the tumour is large.
Where can I get Esophageal cancer treatment?
What are the best clinics for Esophageal cancer treatment?
Who are the best doctors for Esophageal cancer?
Prof. Dr. med. Roland Ladurner from Academic Hospital Martha-Maria Munich
Prof. Dr. med Harald-Robert Bruch, MSc, PhD from Oncological and Haematological Praxis Clinic Bonn
Prof. Dr. med. Florian Bassermann from University Hospital rechts der Isar Munich
Prof. Dr. med. Helmut Friess from University Hospital rechts der Isar Munich
Prof. Dr. med. Stefan Eber from M1 Private Clinic Munich