Prostate cancer treatment
Prostate cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the prostate, which is the male sex gland. As people get older, their chance of getting a tumor increases, so they must get checked regularly. Surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormone therapy, and target therapy are practical approaches to such cancer. For the more advanced cases, Lutetium-177 therapy and radiosurgery are also used.
Let's see what the best prostate cancer treatment center is. Previously, you could learn more about prostate cancer, also called prostate carcinoma.
It is a cancerous growth in a man's prostate gland, one of his sex organs. Tumors can grow slowly and go undetected for years or look like other diseases. Even in small, it starts to spread.
Adenocarcinomas are the most common type of prostate cancer (up to 99 percent of cases) that starts in the special cells of the gland. Other rare types include:
- small cell carcinomas,
- transitional cell carcinomas,
- neuroendocrine tumors,
Prostate cancer, which is the most common type of cancer in men, is the second one, causing about 12% of all cancers. Sad to say, almost one out of every seven men has cancer in the prostate. Statistics show that nearly every third new case is a complete accident. The disease moves slowly, and symptoms don't show up until the third or fourth stage. At the end stage, prostate cancer treatment is more difficult because it spreads to other body parts (preferably in lymph nodes and bones).
What makes prostate cancer happen?
Still, not much is known about what causes prostate cancer. But we know that certain things raise the chance of getting the tumor:
- Age: A 35-year-old man has less than a 0.1% chance of getting prostate cancer in the next ten years, while a 75-year-old man has 50 times increased stake.
- Family history — the risk goes up if close relatives have already been diagnosed with cancer. If a distant relative is sick, the risk goes down, but it is still there. Hereditary prostate cancer is different from other types because it primarily affects middle-aged men.
- Hormones are a big part of what causes the disease, but it's not clear what their exact role is. But now we know that prostate cancer can't happen without the male sex hormone testosterone, mostly made in the testicles.
- Lifestyle directly affects the chance of a cancerous process in the male organ. The most potent mutagenic effects come from drinking, smoking, and using drugs. These things can cause a benign prostate gland tumor to change dangerously.
- Food, like meat and animal fats, can cause the oncological process to start in the prostate. But a link between what you eat and the growth of a cancerous tumor has not been proven. Oncologists say people at risk of cancer shouldn't use the above products.
- Factors like living and work conditions play an important role.
Pay attention to the above-listed and regular check-ups to stay healthy as long as possible. We can help to change the situation even if you look for advanced prostate cancer treatments.
Signs of prostate cancer
Most of the time, prostate tumors cause significant urinary system symptoms. The lump often presses on the urinary tract, leading to pain, inability to pass urine, or both. The urination function is off: frequent urges to go to the bathroom, especially in the evening and at night, but not much urine comes out. Even after that, a person feels like they have a full bladder.
When urinating, a person with a prostate neoplasm may feel pain and tear. Hematuria (blood in urine) may cause the most severe delay in urination. Because of this, blood clots form in the bladder, which makes it hard for fluids to leave the body.
As cancer in the prostate grows and spreads, it worsens the pain. It is in the lower back, the groin, the anus, and the sacrum. The man's kidneys stop working, his body gets weaker, and his mouth stays dry all the time. A syndrome that causes an aching pain in the lower back accompanies the disease.
As a result, the person may throw up, have a headache, and feel tired. The spread of cancer cells in the seminal vesicles causes changes in the urinary system and the organs of the excretory system. In the early stages, prostate cancer doesn't show any apparent signs. Even if a person has metastasis, they can still feel aching pain syndrome in their lower back and pelvis.
When prostate cancer spreads to the nearby rectum, blood can come out of the anus when a man defecates. In its worst form, cancer makes it hard to move and remember things, gives you headaches, makes it hard to use your limbs, and makes you leak urine. Do not wait for warning signs but to see a urologist as soon as possible.
How do doctors find out if it is cancer in the prostate?
Men over 45 should get a yearly checkup through an early checkup program. Detection can be done by talking to your doctor and telling them about any problems or symptoms. The doctor checks the reproductive organs and groin lymph nodes during a tactile exam. Making a digital rectal exam (DRE), the doctor palpates the prostate from the rectum. We understand if you are healthy, it seems unnecessary. But to prevent the problem is better than searching for how many or after radiation treatments for prostate cancer.
If the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is found in the blood, it could mean that the person has prostate cancer. When the value is unusually high (above 4 ng/ml) or shows a sudden rise throughout several tests, doctors may suspect oncology.
With transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), a doctor uses an ultrasound probe to see the prostate and the structures of the tissue around it on a screen. The exam doesn't hurt, but it can be unpleasant. Multi-parametric magnetic resonance tomography is an imaging test that gives more information and is more detailed (mpMRT). It keeps track of the size of the prostate, where suspicious areas are, and other parameters. Some of these are cell density, specific metabolic processes, and blood flow.
With a biopsy, it is easy to tell if there is cancer in the prostate or not. During the exam, a doctor takes several tissue samples from the prostate with the help of an ultrasound and a thin needle.
The doctor will examine your medical history and diagnostic tests to determine what's wrong. If cancer is found in the prostate, the oncologist will tell you at what phase your condition is. For those who are looking for prostate cancer treatment options by stage, it is critically important.
Stage I: The tumor is in the prostate and probably won't grow very fast.
In stage II, the neoplasm becomes more significant, but it stays in the prostate and does not metastasize.
Stage III: The disease spreads outside of the gland and quickly gets worse.
Stage IV: Cancer cells spread to lymph nodes and organs far away. They can also apply to bone tissue.
As you understand, stage 1 or stage 2 prostate cancer treatments are much more successful than the later ones. So do not ignore the check-ups.
What are the treatment options for prostate cancer?
Urologists worldwide agree that surgery is the safest and most effective way to treat prostate cancer if the cancerous tissue is insignificant. Radical prostatectomy is a type of surgery that removes the prostate gland and seminal vesicle. Also, doctors use different techniques:
Through the cut in the lower abdomen or retropubic.
Cut through the perineum between the anus and the bottom of the penis (perineal)
Multiple lower abdomen approaches are used in laparoscopic-endoscopic surgery through several small holes.
The most effective way to treat prostate cancer is with the DaVinci robotic system. It takes the best parts of open surgery and minimally invasive robotic surgery for prostate tumors and puts them together.
Radio-guided surgery (PSMA-RGS surgery) allows for less invasive surgeries and better control of local diseases. The target tissue removed during surgery must be "tagged" with the right radiopharmaceuticals.
There are times when surgery is not a good idea. Or, could cause severe problems for a particular patient. In these cases, treatment with drugs that kill cancerous cells is a choice. Chemotherapy drugs are spread all over the body, so they can also reach tumor cells that have spread to other organs.
Some of the most advanced ways used to successful therapy of cancer. It includes:
- immunotherapy (drugs that make the patient's immune system attack cancer cells),
- target (substances that only affect cancer cells),
- hormonal therapy (which works against testosterone and promotes the development of prostate cancer cells).
Radiation therapy usually takes 20–30 sessions to treat. Still, a person with cancer has a good chance of keeping their potency and urinating normally. Radiation can come from the outside (percutaneously) or the inside directly at the tumor (by brachytherapy). This is one of the best radiation treatments for prostate cancer.
A 17-year prostate cancer-specific survival rate for this kind of treatment is 97 percent.
CyberKnife and GammaKnife can be used as alternative treatments for prostate cancer. It is a very new robotic system for radiosurgery. With these tools, a doctor can give high doses of radiation to cancerous cells in the prostate in an effective way. And the side effects of radiation treatment for prostate cancer are much less.
As medicine and oncology advance, more advanced ways to treat prostate cancer are being made. One of these is proton therapy. With the help of proton beams, it is a very accurate and much less painful way to treat prostate tumors. Cryotherapy or cryosurgery is another modern method that uses hypothermia. To do this, the doctor uses ultrasound to guide 12 to 15 cryo needles into the prostate.
When a person's body is already weak, it is not always a good idea to give them highly toxic chemo drugs or radiation. Instead, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) uses a probe placed in the rectum to send high-energy sound waves toward the prostate. Because of this, the tissue around the tumor heats up to more than 65° C and dies. And the main benefit is that it does less harm to patients.
Radionuclide therapy is a treatment in which the patient is given radioactive substances that build up in tumor tissue and kill the cells.
Prostate cancer symptoms treatments at all stages may include medications, catheters, and surgery.
Other advanced options are:
- Lutetium-177 therapy another name for Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Therapy is becoming a popular treatment method. Men with advanced prostate cancer spread to other body parts show better results after such treatment.
- Actinium-225 therapy, also called Ac-225 PSMA therapy, is a targeted alpha therapy used to treat some types of prostate cancer. High-energy alpha particles can stop DNA from doing its job, stopping cancer cells from dividing or even killing them.
- Radium-223 therapy, also called Ra-223 PSMA therapy, helps treat bone metastases in advanced prostate cancer to fight cancer and relieve pain.
Modern oncology thinks Lutetium 177 treatment for late-stage prostate cancer is one of the best prostate cancer alternative treatments options. Since it was just approved in 2022, it has grown in popularity, and evidence is that it works worldwide.
The perspective for cancer of the prostate
Men with very early prostate cancer who have active surveillance are almost as likely to live as those who have surgery or radiation right away.
After five years, over 90% of all cancer patients are still alive. But if the PSA level goes up during follow-up visits, it could mean that the tumor is growing again (recurrence). About one-third of men are still alive after five years when prostate cancer spreads beyond the gland to other organs.
Is prostate cancer treatable?
Prostate cancer can be cured entirely, especially if it is caught early. There are many good ways to treat cancer. These include surgery, chemo drugs, radiation, hormones, targeted therapy, and newer types of radionuclide therapy.
Does prostate cancer spread?
At first, prostate cancer grows very slowly within the gland. Then it can get through the capsule and move around the area. As the tumor grows, it could spread to other parts of the body, most likely the lymph nodes and bones.
Is surgery by Da Vinci the best way to treat prostate cancer?
Men with prostate cancer don't have many options for surgery. Modern technology and medical research led to Da Vinci's prostatectomy. Robotic prostate surgery is thought to be one of the best ways to treat prostate cancer because of recent technological advances.
Does prostate cancer spread slowly?
Most people think that the disease spreads slowly. So, doctors might suggest a strategy of waiting for treatment. But it's rarely needed, and most urologists say that treatment should start as soon as possible for the best chance of survival.
Can prostate cancer be treated with Lutetium?
In March 2022, the FDA approved PSMA for the use of Lutetium-177. It has significantly affected how long people with prostate cancer live and how well they live. The treatment also makes it take longer for the disease to get worse.
Where can I get Prostate cancer treatment?
What are the best clinics for Prostate cancer treatment?
Who are the best doctors for Prostate cancer?
Prof. Dr. med. Mark Schrader from Helios Hospital Berlin-Buch
PD. Dr. med. Peter Reichardt from Helios Hospital Berlin-Buch
Prof. Dr. med. Martin Kriegmair from Urological Clinic Munich-Planegg
Prof. Dr. med. Michael Siebels from Urological Clinic Munich-Planegg
Dr. med. Hans Jorg Sommerfeld from Marien Hospital Marl